06 April 2011


In Malaysia, the percentage demand for plastic surgery increase. Not only Malaysia, but around the world. Article in Utusan Malaysia on 21st October 2007, Deputy Health Minister Malaysia Abdul Latif Ahmad said, during the last four years, the demand for plastic surgery was increase by 280 percent around the world including Malaysia. The increase percentage demand for plastic surgery is cause to people in Malaysia. It is because the majority in Malaysia and they are hold on to Islam or Muslim and Islam are the official religion in Malaysia.
What mean by Plastic Surgery? In literal, the word “plastic is taken from Greek word plastikos, which means to form or mold. In the conceptual, plastic surgery is a modern medical field concerned with the correction or restoration of form and function. The word ‘plastic’ in plastic surgery, doesn’t means is the part of synthetic polymers. The word plastic is the adjective meaning by ‘sculpting’ or ‘shaping’, not the noun plastic, synthetic polymers. Using the word plastic is because easy compare to the scientific word. There are many scientific words for plastic surgery. For example, labiaplasty, hymenoplasty and vaginoplasty. This medical can involve appearance and ability to function or the patients’ body.
The main function of plastic surgery is improved patients’ appearance and self image. Plastic surgery has two types. The first is Reconstructive Surgery. Reconstructive surgery is performed to correct or to rebuild functional in the body and it cause by the others factor. In other meaning, reconstructive surgery is performed to improve the function of face or body, but not exactly the normal appearance, but it done to approximate a normal appearance. Examples of the reconstructive surgery are traumatic injuries, such as facial burns, facial bone fractures and breaks; congenital abnormalities, such as cleft palates or cleft lips; developmental abnormalities; infection and disease; and cancer or tumors.
The common reconstructive surgery are tumor removal, laceration repair, scar repair, hand surgery, breast reduction, breast reconstruction, cleft lip and palate surgery, surgery for burn survivors and creating a new outer ear when one is congenitally absent. Sources American Society of Plastic Surgeons, the number women are doing reconstructive breast reduction was increased in 2007 by 2 percent the year before. Otherwise, breast reduction for men also increased in 2007 by 7 percent. Microsurgery is used by plastic surgeons to transfer tissue for coverage of defect when no original tissue is available.
The second type of plastic surgery is Cosmetic Surgery.  What is Cosmetic Surgery? Cosmetic surgery is technique are consist surgical and medical for the enhancement of appearance, and is main concerned with stability normal appearance, improving it, or enhancing it beyond the average level toward cosmetic ideal. The cosmetic surgery also called aesthetic surgery. The most common of cosmetic surgery are increase the breast size (augmentation mammoplasty) or decrease the size (reduction mammoplasty), reshaping the nose (rhinoplasty) and removing of fat from part of body related (liposuction).
In United States only, nearly 11 million and 12 million cosmetic procedures were performed in 2006 and 2007. The number of the plastic was increased by 50 percent since the 2000. The increasing comestic surgery is breast augmentation, liposuction, nasal surgery, eyelid surgery and abdominoplasty. Cosmestic surgery is essential to the world community especially western countries such as United Kingdom, France, Germany and United States of America. In Asia, people in China are accepted and practice it is because of China is currently Asia’s biggest cosmetic surgery market. 
Plastic surgery has two aspects of advantages, the benefit to physical and psychology.  In physical aspect, plastic surgery help for those has physical disability. It is really benefit to individuals has a physical disability such as Mastectomy patients, children born with a cleft lip and individuals has scar on their face. Plastic surgery also helps to individuals who are having a physical disability. It is helpful to the individuals who have problems with their parts of body by improving the problem with their taste.
The second aspect and the main advantages are psychology aspect. In psychology aspect, plastic surgery increases the self-esteem and confidence level to the patients after the operation. The patients will become more confidence with their selves and become more comfortable in their interaction with others. This is positive effect in their socialization and may improve their interaction skills. The result help the patients live better because their not worry about not being accepted by the society because the improvement on their appearance. In improvement on their appearance will increase chances of getting hired for particular job. The person also has chances becoming successful with their career.
Plastic surgery also cannot run away from risks that may be encountered after surgery. The first risk that may be encountered by the patient is bleeding. Bleeding is normal things for a few hours after surgery and this problem come from complications. Blood clotting can be in a condition called hematoma it can be effect to appearance and feel, and the color of skin may change to blue or purple. If this hematoma continual grows, it will compress the surrounding tissues and disrupts the flow of oxygen in the blood from circulating around the area. This problem may lead to numbness, swelling, inflammation and skin death. Some surgery is required to take out the coagulated blood. Moreover, the existence of large hematoma can increase the risks of other problem like infection, wound separation and necrosis.
The second risk that may have to face for patient is scarring. Scarring is the most common risk and the patient should be aware. This related to suture reactions and wound healing capability. On healing process, a thickening of skin edge and formation of granular tissue can occur. Doctor will hide the scarring in places where others person cannot be seen. For example, in tummy tuck operation it is beneath swing wear line otherwise for breast augmentation the incision are hide under the crease of breast.
The third risk of plastic is necrosis. Necrosis is a death tissue due to insufficient supply of oxygen to the problem area. Necrosis is very rare to compare other risk in normal cosmetic surgery but it possibility in face lifts, breast reductions and tummy tucks. This risk normally related to smokers. Smokers are high possibility get necrosis. This happen because blood vessel constriction and relatively less oxygen supply. It is generally treated in early stages by hyperbaric oxygen therapy. 
The fourth risk is nerve damage. This is very rare happen when doing plastic surgery. Extreme cases nerve damage can occur by numbness and tingling sensation. Generally the nerve damage can lost not more than one year. Weakness or paralysis of certain muscles may be occurring when the movement is impaired. It can be treated with reconstructive surgery.
The lastly risk may be encountered by patients is adverse reactions to Anesthesia. This risk due to use of anesthesia are very rare but nevertheless its hazards if occur are still there. The risks depend on the factors like healthiness and seriousness of surgery. Nausea is a common feature. Sore throat is also commonly experienced risk. The total risk factor of this type is generally very rare. 
Before the patients choose to doing plastic surgery for their treatment, their must consider a few thing. Have four considerations before their choose doing plastic surgery. Firstly, their have ask their self why their choose plastic. It is because their want for their self or is it for someone else. Almost teen are self conscious about their body and hoping a few things on their body can be changed.  This self consciousness will be going with the changes of time. Second consideration is time and growth the body. A person body will be growth and change every year. The body parts appear too large or small can be balance with influenced by time. For example, big nose looks are not perfect will be perfect during the growth.
Third consideration is alternative solution other than plastic surgery.  For getting perfect body, not only through plastic surgery but the good shape also can get through appropriate weight control and exercise. The idea choose plastic surgery as a first option for reduce weighting is a not a good choice because it can be reduce by non surgical manner for example exercise or balance diet. Obesity problem can be solving through plastic surgery by using gastric bypass or liposuction. The solution look like quick and easy compared dieting and exercising. However gastric bypass and liposuction carry greater risks compared the dieting and exercising and the doctor the give advise to choose plastic surgery if another treatment   have failed.
The last of consideration for chosen plastic surgery is emotion. Some people influence by emotion on how they think they look. People who are depressed or  low self esteem, extremely thinking by changing their looks or appearance can be solve their problem. But this case it cannot succeed. Emotional problem can be solving by helping from trained therapist. Doctor cannot perform plastic surgery for those who has depressed, mental or emotional problems until these problem are treated first.
Have two laws for the plastic surgery in Islam perspective, it is allowed and forbid. Is forbid in Islam is because the plastic surgery is done to alter the original creation of the human body as Allah created the excuse to look good purpose other than cosmetics. A cosmetic surgery is forbid in Islam is because cosmetics or aesthetic procedure alter a part of the body that the person is not satisfied with.
The second law for the plastic surgery is allowed if using reconstructive surgery. Plastic surgery is allowed because is done to improve the organs damaged by the trauma of the accident other than to defect to restore normal incidence of the human body. It is also allowed in Islam because it done for medical and health purpose only, while other purpose is not permitted and forbidden by Islamic law. For example, if the hole a nose is too narrow that makes it difficult to breathe, it allowed for individuals to doing surgery to enlarge the nostrils. But if he wants to doing surgery to raise their sticks his nose it seems to look good, then the act is sinful and not allowed.

*siap gak asgmnt phi aku... lecture suh wat term paper. so kne pilih satu isu psl science... so aku pilih    lah plastick....

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